\chapter[chap:description]{Hardware description}
In this chapter an overview will be provided of the hardware
description language that was created and the issues that have arisen
in the process. The focus will be on the issues of the language, not
the implementation. The prototype implementation will be discussed in
\in{chapter}[chap:prototype].
To translate Haskell to hardware, every Haskell construct needs a
translation to \VHDL. There are often multiple valid translations
possible. When faced with choices, the most obvious choice has been
chosen wherever possible. In a lot of cases, when a programmer looks
at a functional hardware description it is completely clear what
hardware is described. We want our translator to generate exactly that
hardware whenever possible, to make working with Cλash as intuitive as
possible.
\placeintermezzo{}{
\defref{reading examples}
\startframedtext[width=9cm,background=box,frame=no]
\startalignment[center]
{\tfa Reading the examples}
\stopalignment
\blank[medium]
In this thesis, a lot of functional code will be presented. Part of this
will be valid Cλash code, but others will just be small Haskell or Core
snippets to illustrate a concept.
In these examples, some functions and types will be used, without
properly defining every one of them. These functions (like \hs{and},
\hs{not}, \hs{add}, \hs{+}, etc.) and types (like \hs{Bit}, \hs{Word},
\hs{Bool}, etc.) are usually pretty self-explanatory.
The special type \hs{[t]} means \quote{list of \hs{t}'s}, where \hs{t}
can be any other type.
Of particular note is the use of the \hs{::} operator. It is used in
Haskell to explicitly declare the type of function or let binding. In
these examples and the text, we will occasionally use this operator to
show the type of arbitrary expressions, even where this would not
normally be valid. Just reading the \hs{::} operator as \quote{and also
note that \emph{this} expression has \emph{this} type} should work out.
\stopframedtext
}
In this chapter we describe how to interpret a Haskell program from a
hardware perspective. We provide a description of each Haskell language
element that needs translation, to provide a clear picture of what is
supported and how.
\section[sec:description:application]{Function application}
The basic syntactic elements of a functional program are functions and
function application. These have a single obvious \small{VHDL}
translation: each top level function becomes a hardware component, where each
argument is an input port and the result value is the (single) output
port. This output port can have a complex type (such as a tuple), so
having just a single output port does not pose a limitation.
Each function application in turn becomes component instantiation. Here, the
result of each argument expression is assigned to a signal, which is mapped
to the corresponding input port. The output port of the function is also
mapped to a signal, which is used as the result of the application.
Since every top level function generates its own component, the
hierarchy of of function calls is reflected in the final \VHDL\ output
as well, creating a hierarchical \VHDL\ description of the hardware.
This separation in different components makes the resulting \VHDL\
output easier to read and debug.
\in{Example}[ex:And3] shows a simple program using only function
application and the corresponding architecture.
\startbuffer[And3]
-- A simple function that returns
-- conjunction of three bits
and3 :: Bit -> Bit -> Bit -> Bit
and3 a b c = and (and a b) c
\stopbuffer
\startuseMPgraphic{And3}
save a, b, c, anda, andb, out;
% I/O ports
newCircle.a(btex $a$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.b(btex $b$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.c(btex $c$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.out(btex $out$ etex) "framed(false)";
% Components
newCircle.anda(btex $and$ etex);
newCircle.andb(btex $and$ etex);
a.c = origin;
b.c = a.c + (0cm, 1cm);
c.c = b.c + (0cm, 1cm);
anda.c = midpoint(a.c, b.c) + (2cm, 0cm);
andb.c = midpoint(b.c, c.c) + (4cm, 0cm);
out.c = andb.c + (2cm, 0cm);
% Draw objects and lines
drawObj(a, b, c, anda, andb, out);
ncarc(a)(anda) "arcangle(-10)";
ncarc(b)(anda);
ncarc(anda)(andb);
ncarc(c)(andb);
ncline(andb)(out);
\stopuseMPgraphic
\startbuffer[And3VHDL]
entity and3Component_0 is
port (\azMyG2\ : in std_logic;
\bzMyI2\ : in std_logic;
\czMyK2\ : in std_logic;
\foozMySzMyS2\ : out std_logic;
clock : in std_logic;
resetn : in std_logic);
end entity and3Component_0;
architecture structural of and3Component_0 is
signal \argzMyMzMyM2\ : std_logic;
begin
\argzMyMzMyM2\ <= \azMyG2\ and \bzMyI2\;
\foozMySzMyS2\ <= \argzMyMzMyM2\ and \czMyK2\;
end architecture structural;
\stopbuffer
\placeexample[][ex:And3]{Simple three input and gate.}
\startcombination[2*1]
{\typebufferhs{And3}}{Haskell description using function applications.}
{\boxedgraphic{And3}}{The architecture described by the Haskell description.}
\stopcombination
\placeexample[][ex:And3VHDL]{\VHDL\ generated for \hs{and3} from \in{example}[ex:And3]}
{\typebuffervhdl{And3VHDL}}
\placeintermezzo{}{
\defref{top level binding}
\defref{top level binder}
\defref{top level function}
\startframedtext[width=8cm,background=box,frame=no]
\startalignment[center]
{\tfa Top level binders and functions}
\stopalignment
\blank[medium]
A \emph{top level binder} is any binder (variable) that is
declared in the \quote{global} scope of a Haskell program (as
opposed to a binder that is bound inside a function. The binder
together with its body is referred to as a \emph{top level
binding}.
In Haskell, there is no sharp distinction between a variable and a
function: a function is just a variable (binder) with a function
type. This means that a \emph{top level function} is just any top
level binder with a function type. This also means that sometimes
top level function will be used when top level binder is really
meant.
As an example, consider the following Haskell snippet:
\starthaskell
foo :: Int -> Int
foo x = inc x
where
inc = \y -> y + 1
\stophaskell
Here, \hs{foo} is a top level binder, whereas \hs{inc} is a
function (since it is bound to a lambda extraction, indicated by
the backslash) but is not a top level binder or function. Since
the type of \hs{foo} is a function type, namely \hs{Int -> Int},
it is also a top level function.
\stopframedtext
}
\section{Choice}
Although describing components and connections allows us to describe a lot of
hardware designs already, there is an obvious thing missing: choice. We
need some way to be able to choose between values based on another value.
In Haskell, choice is achieved by \hs{case} expressions, \hs{if}
expressions, pattern matching and guards.
An obvious way to add choice to our language without having to recognize
any of Haskell's syntax, would be to add a primitive \quote{\hs{if}}
function. This function would take three arguments: the condition, the
value to return when the condition is true and the value to return when
the condition is false.
This \hs{if} function would then essentially describe a multiplexer and
allows us to describe any architecture that uses multiplexers.
However, to be able to describe our hardware in a more convenient way, we
also want to translate Haskell's choice mechanisms. The easiest of these
are of course case expressions (and \hs{if} expressions, which can be very
directly translated to \hs{case} expressions). A \hs{case} expression can in turn
simply be translated to a conditional assignment, where the conditions use
equality comparisons against the constructors in the \hs{case} expressions.
In \in{example}[ex:Inv] two versions of an inverter are shown. The first
uses a simple \hs{case} expression, scrutinizing a Boolean value. The
corresponding architecture has a comparator to determine which of the
constructors is on the \hs{in} input. There is a multiplexer to select the
output signal (which is just a conditional assignment in the generated
\VHDL). The two options for the output signals are just constants,
but these could have been more complex expressions (in which case also
both of them would be working in parallel, regardless of which output
would be chosen eventually). The \VHDL\ generated for (both versions of)
this inverter is shown in \in{example}[ex:InvVHDL].
If we would translate a Boolean to a bit value, we could of course remove
the comparator and directly feed 'in' into the multiplexer (or even use an
inverter instead of a multiplexer). However, we will try to make a
general translation, which works for all possible \hs{case} expressions.
Optimizations such as these are left for the \VHDL\ synthesizer, which
handles them very well.
\placeintermezzo{}{
\startframedtext[width=8cm,background=box,frame=no]
\startalignment[center]
{\tfa Arguments / results vs. inputs / outputs}
\stopalignment
\blank[medium]
Due to the translation chosen for function application, there is a
very strong relation between arguments, results, inputs and outputs.
For clarity, the former two will always refer to the arguments and
results in the functional description (either Haskell or Core). The
latter two will refer to input and output ports in the generated
\VHDL.
Even though these concepts seem to be nearly identical, when stateful
functions are introduces we will see arguments and results that will
not get translated into input and output ports, making this
distinction more important.
\stopframedtext
}
A slightly more complex (but very powerful) form of choice is pattern
matching. A function can be defined in multiple clauses, where each clause
specifies a pattern. When the arguments match the pattern, the
corresponding clause will be used.
\in{Example}[ex:Inv] also shows an inverter that uses pattern matching.
The architecture it describes is of course the
same one as the description with a case expression. The general interpretation
of pattern matching is also similar to that of \hs{case} expressions: generate
hardware for each of the clauses (like each of the clauses of a \hs{case}
expression) and connect them to the function output through (a number of
nested) multiplexers. These multiplexers are driven by comparators and
other logic, that check each pattern in turn.
In these examples we have seen only binary case expressions and pattern
matches (\ie, with two alternatives). In practice, case expressions can
choose between more than two values, resulting in a number of nested
multiplexers.
\startbuffer[CaseInv]
inv :: Bool -> Bool
inv x = case x of
True -> False
False -> True
\stopbuffer
\startbuffer[PatternInv]
inv :: Bool -> Bool
inv True = False
inv False = True
\stopbuffer
\startuseMPgraphic{Inv}
save in, truecmp, falseout, trueout, out, cmp, mux;
% I/O ports
newCircle.in(btex $in$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.out(btex $out$ etex) "framed(false)";
% Constants
newBox.truecmp(btex $True$ etex) "framed(false)";
newBox.trueout(btex $True$ etex) "framed(false)";
newBox.falseout(btex $False$ etex) "framed(false)";
% Components
newCircle.cmp(btex $==$ etex);
newMux.mux;
in.c = origin;
cmp.c = in.c + (3cm, 0cm);
truecmp.c = cmp.c + (-1cm, 1cm);
mux.sel = cmp.e + (1cm, -1cm);
falseout.c = mux.inpa - (2cm, 0cm);
trueout.c = mux.inpb - (2cm, 0cm);
out.c = mux.out + (2cm, 0cm);
% Draw objects and lines
drawObj(in, out, truecmp, trueout, falseout, cmp, mux);
ncline(in)(cmp);
ncarc(truecmp)(cmp);
nccurve(cmp.e)(mux.sel) "angleA(0)", "angleB(-90)";
ncline(falseout)(mux) "posB(inpa)";
ncline(trueout)(mux) "posB(inpb)";
ncline(mux)(out) "posA(out)";
\stopuseMPgraphic
\startbuffer[InvVHDL]
entity invComponent_0 is
port (\xzAMo2\ : in boolean;
\reszAMuzAMu2\ : out boolean;
clock : in std_logic;
resetn : in std_logic);
end entity invComponent_0;
architecture structural of invComponent_0 is
begin
\reszAMuzAMu2\ <= false when \xzAMo2\ = true else
true;
end architecture structural;
\stopbuffer
\placeexample[][ex:Inv]{Simple inverter.}{
% Use placesidebyside, since nesting combinations doesn't seem to work
% here. This does break centering, but well...
\placesidebyside
% Use 2*2 instead of 1*2 to insert some extra space (\placesidebyside
% places stuff very close together)
{\startcombination[2*2]
{\typebufferhs{CaseInv}}{Haskell description using a Case expression.}
{}{}
{\typebufferhs{PatternInv}}{Haskell description using Pattern matching expression.}
{}{}
\stopcombination}
% Use a 1*1 combination to add a caption
{\startcombination[1*1]
{\boxedgraphic{Inv}}{The architecture described by the Haskell descriptions.}
\stopcombination}
}
% \placeexample[][ex:Inv]{Simple inverter.}{
% \startcombination[2*2]
% {\typebufferhs{CaseInv}}{Haskell description using a Case expression.}
% {}{}
% {\typebufferhs{PatternInv}}{Haskell description using Pattern matching expression.}
% {\boxedgraphic{Inv}}{The architecture described by the Haskell description.}
% \stopcombination
% }
\placeexample[][ex:InvVHDL]{\VHDL\ generated for (both versions of) \hs{inv} from \in{example}[ex:Inv]}
{\typebuffervhdl{InvVHDL}}
\section{Types}
Translation of two most basic functional concepts has been
discussed: function application and choice. Before looking further
into less obvious concepts like higher-order expressions and
polymorphism, the possible types that can be used in hardware
descriptions will be discussed.
Some way is needed to translate every values used to its hardware
equivalents. In particular, this means a hardware equivalent for
every \emph{type} used in a hardware description is needed
Since most functional languages have a lot of standard types that
are hard to translate (integers without a fixed size, lists without
a static length, etc.), a number of \quote{built-in} types will be
defined first. These types are built-in in the sense that our
compiler will have a fixed VHDL type for these. User defined types,
on the other hand, will have their hardware type derived directly
from their Haskell declaration automatically, according to the rules
sketched here.
\todo{Introduce Haskell type syntax (type constructors, type application,
:: operator?)}
\subsection{Built-in types}
The language currently supports the following built-in types. Of these,
only the \hs{Bool} type is supported by Haskell out of the box (the
others are defined by the Cλash package, so they are user-defined types
from Haskell's point of view).
\startdesc{\hs{Bit}}
This is the most basic type available. It is mapped directly onto
the \type{std_logic} \small{VHDL} type. Mapping this to the
\type{bit} type might make more sense (since the Haskell version
only has two values), but using \type{std_logic} is more standard
(and allowed for some experimentation with don't care values)
\todo{Sidenote bit vs stdlogic}
\stopdesc
\startdesc{\hs{Bool}}
This is the only built-in Haskell type supported and is translated
exactly like the Bit type (where a value of \hs{True} corresponds to a
value of \hs{High}). Supporting the Bool type is particularly
useful to support \hs{if ... then ... else ...} expressions, which
always have a \hs{Bool} value for the condition.
A \hs{Bool} is translated to a \type{std_logic}, just like \hs{Bit}.
\stopdesc
\startdesc{\hs{SizedWord}, \hs{SizedInt}}
These are types to represent integers. A \hs{SizedWord} is unsigned,
while a \hs{SizedInt} is signed. These types are parametrized by a
length type, so you can define an unsigned word of 32 bits wide as
follows:
\starthaskell
type Word32 = SizedWord D32
\stophaskell
Here, a type synonym \hs{Word32} is defined that is equal to the
\hs{SizedWord} type constructor applied to the type \hs{D32}. \hs{D32}
is the \emph{type level representation} of the decimal number 32,
making the \hs{Word32} type a 32-bit unsigned word.
These types are translated to the \small{VHDL} \type{unsigned} and
\type{signed} respectively.
\todo{Sidenote on dependent typing?}
\stopdesc
\startdesc{\hs{Vector}}
This is a vector type, that can contain elements of any other type and
has a fixed length. It has two type parameters: its
length and the type of the elements contained in it. By putting the
length parameter in the type, the length of a vector can be determined
at compile time, instead of only at run-time for conventional lists.
The \hs{Vector} type constructor takes two type arguments: the length
of the vector and the type of the elements contained in it. The state
type of an 8 element register bank would then for example be:
\starthaskell
type RegisterState = Vector D8 Word32
\stophaskell
Here, a type synonym \hs{RegisterState} is defined that is equal to
the \hs{Vector} type constructor applied to the types \hs{D8} (The type
level representation of the decimal number 8) and \hs{Word32} (The 32
bit word type as defined above). In other words, the
\hs{RegisterState} type is a vector of 8 32-bit words.
A fixed size vector is translated to a \small{VHDL} array type.
\stopdesc
\startdesc{\hs{RangedWord}}
This is another type to describe integers, but unlike the previous
two it has no specific bit-width, but an upper bound. This means that
its range is not limited to powers of two, but can be any number.
A \hs{RangedWord} only has an upper bound, its lower bound is
implicitly zero. There is a lot of added implementation complexity
when adding a lower bound and having just an upper bound was enough
for the primary purpose of this type: type-safely indexing vectors.
To define an index for the 8 element vector above, we would do:
\starthaskell
type RegisterIndex = RangedWord D7
\stophaskell
Here, a type synonym \hs{RegisterIndex} is defined that is equal to
the \hs{RangedWord} type constructor applied to the type \hs{D7}. In
other words, this defines an unsigned word with values from
{\definedfont[Serif*normalnum]0 to 7} (inclusive). This word can be be used to index the
8 element vector \hs{RegisterState} above.
This type is translated to the \type{unsigned} \small{VHDL} type.
\stopdesc
The integer and vector built-in types are discussed in more detail
in \cite[baaij09].
\subsection{User-defined types}
There are three ways to define new types in Haskell: algebraic
data-types with the \hs{data} keyword, type synonyms with the \hs{type}
keyword and type renamings with the \hs{newtype} keyword. \GHC\
offers a few more advanced ways to introduce types (type families,
existential typing, \small{GADT}s, etc.) which are not standard
Haskell. These will be left outside the scope of this research.
Only an algebraic datatype declaration actually introduces a
completely new type, for which we provide the \VHDL\ translation
below. Type synonyms and renamings only define new names for
existing types (where synonyms are completely interchangeable and
renamings need explicit conversion). Therefore, these do not need
any particular \VHDL\ translation, a synonym or renamed type will
just use the same representation as the original type. The
distinction between a renaming and a synonym does no longer matter
in hardware and can be disregarded in the generated \VHDL.
For algebraic types, we can make the following distinction:
\startdesc{Product types}
A product type is an algebraic datatype with a single constructor with
two or more fields, denoted in practice like (a,b), (a,b,c), etc. This
is essentially a way to pack a few values together in a record-like
structure. In fact, the built-in tuple types are just algebraic product
types (and are thus supported in exactly the same way).
The \quote{product} in its name refers to the collection of values belonging
to this type. The collection for a product type is the Cartesian
product of the collections for the types of its fields.
These types are translated to \VHDL\ record types, with one field for
every field in the constructor. This translation applies to all single
constructor algebraic data-types, including those with just one
field (which are technically not a product, but generate a VHDL
record for implementation simplicity).
\stopdesc
\startdesc{Enumerated types}
\defref{enumerated types}
An enumerated type is an algebraic datatype with multiple constructors, but
none of them have fields. This is essentially a way to get an
enumeration-like type containing alternatives.
Note that Haskell's \hs{Bool} type is also defined as an
enumeration type, but we have a fixed translation for that.
These types are translated to \VHDL\ enumerations, with one value for
each constructor. This allows references to these constructors to be
translated to the corresponding enumeration value.
\stopdesc
\startdesc{Sum types}
A sum type is an algebraic datatype with multiple constructors, where
the constructors have one or more fields. Technically, a type with
more than one field per constructor is a sum of products type, but
for our purposes this distinction does not really make a
difference, so this distinction is note made.
The \quote{sum} in its name refers again to the collection of values
belonging to this type. The collection for a sum type is the
union of the the collections for each of the constructors.
Sum types are currently not supported by the prototype, since there is
no obvious \VHDL\ alternative. They can easily be emulated, however, as
we will see from an example:
\starthaskell
data Sum = A Bit Word | B Word
\stophaskell
An obvious way to translate this would be to create an enumeration to
distinguish the constructors and then create a big record that
contains all the fields of all the constructors. This is the same
translation that would result from the following enumeration and
product type (using a tuple for clarity):
\starthaskell
data SumC = A | B
type Sum = (SumC, Bit, Word, Word)
\stophaskell
Here, the \hs{SumC} type effectively signals which of the latter three
fields of the \hs{Sum} type are valid (the first two if \hs{A}, the
last one if \hs{B}), all the other ones have no useful value.
An obvious problem with this naive approach is the space usage: the
example above generates a fairly big \VHDL\ type. Since we can be
sure that the two \hs{Word}s in the \hs{Sum} type will never be valid
at the same time, this is a waste of space.
Obviously, duplication detection could be used to reuse a
particular field for another constructor, but this would only
partially solve the problem. If two fields would be, for
example, an array of 8 bits and an 8 bit unsigned word, these are
different types and could not be shared. However, in the final
hardware, both of these types would simply be 8 bit connections,
so we have a 100\% size increase by not sharing these.
\stopdesc
Another interesting case is that of recursive types. In Haskell, an
algebraic datatype can be recursive: any of its field types can be (or
contain) the type being defined. The most well-known recursive type is
probably the list type, which is defined is:
\starthaskell
data List t = Empty | Cons t (List t)
\stophaskell
Note that \hs{Empty} is usually written as \hs{[]} and \hs{Cons} as
\hs{:}, but this would make the definition harder to read. This
immediately shows the problem with recursive types: what hardware type
to allocate here?
If the naive approach for sum types described above would be used,
a record would be created where the first field is an enumeration
to distinguish \hs{Empty} from \hs{Cons}. Furthermore, two more
fields would be added: one with the (\VHDL\ equivalent of) type
\hs{t} (assuming this type is actually known at compile time, this
should not be a problem) and a second one with type \hs{List t}.
The latter one is of course a problem: this is exactly the type
that was to be translated in the first place.
The resulting \VHDL\ type will thus become infinitely deep. In
other words, there is no way to statically determine how long
(deep) the list will be (it could even be infinite).
In general, recursive types can never be properly translated: all
recursive types have a potentially infinite value (even though in
practice they will have a bounded value, there is no way for the
compiler to automatically determine an upper bound on its size).
\subsection{Partial application}
Now the translation of application, choice and types has been
discussed, a more complex concept can be considered: partial
applications. A \emph{partial application} is any application whose
(return) type is (again) a function type.
From this, it should be clear that the translation rules for full
application does not apply to a partial application: there are not
enough values for all the input ports in the resulting \VHDL.
\in{Example}[ex:Quadruple] shows an example use of partial application
and the corresponding architecture.
\startbuffer[Quadruple]
-- Multiply the input word by four.
quadruple :: Word -> Word
quadruple n = mul (mul n)
where
mul = (*) 2
\stopbuffer
\startuseMPgraphic{Quadruple}
save in, two, mula, mulb, out;
% I/O ports
newCircle.in(btex $n$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.two(btex $2$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.out(btex $out$ etex) "framed(false)";
% Components
newCircle.mula(btex $\times$ etex);
newCircle.mulb(btex $\times$ etex);
two.c = origin;
in.c = two.c + (0cm, 1cm);
mula.c = in.c + (2cm, 0cm);
mulb.c = mula.c + (2cm, 0cm);
out.c = mulb.c + (2cm, 0cm);
% Draw objects and lines
drawObj(in, two, mula, mulb, out);
nccurve(two)(mula) "angleA(0)", "angleB(45)";
nccurve(two)(mulb) "angleA(0)", "angleB(45)";
ncline(in)(mula);
ncline(mula)(mulb);
ncline(mulb)(out);
\stopuseMPgraphic
\placeexample[][ex:Quadruple]{Simple three port and.}
\startcombination[2*1]
{\typebufferhs{Quadruple}}{Haskell description using function applications.}
{\boxedgraphic{Quadruple}}{The architecture described by the Haskell description.}
\stopcombination
Here, the definition of mul is a partial function application: it applies
the function \hs{(*) :: Word -> Word -> Word} to the value \hs{2 :: Word},
resulting in the expression \hs{(*) 2 :: Word -> Word}. Since this resulting
expression is again a function, hardware cannot be generated for it
directly. This is because the hardware to generate for \hs{mul}
depends completely on where and how it is used. In this example, it is
even used twice.
However, it is clear that the above hardware description actually
describes valid hardware. In general, any partial applied function
must eventually become completely applied, at which point hardware for
it can be generated using the rules for function application given in
\in{section}[sec:description:application]. It might mean that a
partial application is passed around quite a bit (even beyond function
boundaries), but eventually, the partial application will become
completely applied. An example of this principle is given in
\in{section}[sec:normalization:defunctionalization].
\section{Costless specialization}
Each (complete) function application in our description generates a
component instantiation, or a specific piece of hardware in the final
design. It is interesting to note that each application of a function
generates a \emph{separate} piece of hardware. In the final design, none
of the hardware is shared between applications, even when the applied
function is the same (of course, if a particular value, such as the result
of a function application, is used twice, it is not calculated twice).
This is distinctly different from normal program compilation: two separate
calls to the same function share the same machine code. Having more
machine code has implications for speed (due to less efficient caching)
and memory usage. For normal compilation, it is therefore important to
keep the amount of functions limited and maximize the code sharing
(though there is a trade-off between speed and memory usage here).
When generating hardware, this is hardly an issue. Having more \quote{code
sharing} does reduce the amount of \small{VHDL} output (Since different
component instantiations still share the same component), but after
synthesis, the amount of hardware generated is not affected. This
means there is no trade-off between speed and memory (or rather,
chip area) usage.
In particular, if we would duplicate all functions so that there is a
separate function for every application in the program (\eg, each function
is then only applied exactly once), there would be no increase in hardware
size whatsoever.
Because of this, a common optimization technique called
\emph{specialization} can be applied to hardware generation without any
performance or area cost (unlike for software).
\fxnote{Perhaps these next three sections are a bit too
implementation-oriented?}
\subsection{Specialization}
\defref{specialization}
Given some function that has a \emph{domain} $D$ (\eg, the set of
all possible arguments that the function could be applied to), we
create a specialized function with exactly the same behavior, but
with a domain $D' \subset D$. This subset can be chosen in all
sorts of ways. Any subset is valid for the general definition of
specialization, but in practice only some of them provide useful
optimization opportunities.
Common subsets include limiting a polymorphic argument to a single type
(\ie, removing polymorphism) or limiting an argument to just a single
value (\ie, cross-function constant propagation, effectively removing
the argument).
Since we limit the argument domain of the specialized function, its
definition can often be optimized further (since now more types or even
values of arguments are already known). By replacing any application of
the function that falls within the reduced domain by an application of
the specialized version, the code gets faster (but the code also gets
bigger, since we now have two versions instead of one). If we apply
this technique often enough, we can often replace all applications of a
function by specialized versions, allowing the original function to be
removed (in some cases, this can even give a net reduction of the code
compared to the non-specialized version).
Specialization is useful for our hardware descriptions for functions
that contain arguments that cannot be translated to hardware directly
(polymorphic or higher-order arguments, for example). If we can create
specialized functions that remove the argument, or make it translatable,
we can use specialization to make the original, untranslatable, function
obsolete.
\section{Higher order values}
What holds for partial application, can be easily generalized to any
higher-order expression. This includes partial applications, plain
variables (e.g., a binder referring to a top level function), lambda
expressions and more complex expressions with a function type (a \hs{case}
expression returning lambda's, for example).
Each of these values cannot be directly represented in hardware (just like
partial applications). Also, to make them representable, they need to be
applied: function variables and partial applications will then eventually
become complete applications, applied lambda expressions disappear by
applying β-reduction, etc.
So any higher-order value will be \quote{pushed down} towards its
application just like partial applications. Whenever a function boundary
needs to be crossed, the called function can be specialized.
\fxnote{This section needs improvement and an example}
\section{Polymorphism}
In Haskell, values can be \emph{polymorphic}: they can have multiple types. For
example, the function \hs{fst :: (a, b) -> a} is an example of a
polymorphic function: it works for tuples with any two element types. Haskell
type classes allow a function to work on a specific set of types, but the
general idea is the same. The opposite of this is a \emph{monomorphic}
value, which has a single, fixed, type.
% A type class is a collection of types for which some operations are
% defined. It is thus possible for a value to be polymorphic while having
% any number of \emph{class constraints}: the value is not defined for
% every type, but only for types in the type class. An example of this is
% the \hs{even :: (Integral a) => a -> Bool} function, which can map any
% value of a type that is member of the \hs{Integral} type class
When generating hardware, polymorphism cannot be easily translated. How
many wires will you lay down for a value that could have any type? When
type classes are involved, what hardware components will you lay down for
a class method (whose behavior depends on the type of its arguments)?
Note that Cλash currently does not allow user-defined type classes,
but does partly support some of the built-in type classes (like \hs{Num}).
Fortunately, we can again use the principle of specialization: since every
function application generates a separate piece of hardware, we can know
the types of all arguments exactly. Provided that existential typing
(which is a \GHC\ extension) is not used typing, all of the
polymorphic types in a function must depend on the types of the
arguments (In other words, the only way to introduce a type variable
is in a lambda abstraction).
If a function is monomorphic, all values inside it are monomorphic as
well, so any function that is applied within the function can only be
applied to monomorphic values. The applied functions can then be
specialized to work just for these specific types, removing the
polymorphism from the applied functions as well.
\defref{entry function}The entry function must not have a
polymorphic type (otherwise no hardware interface could be generated
for the entry function).
By induction, this means that all functions that are (indirectly) called
by our top level function (meaning all functions that are translated in
the final hardware) become monomorphic.
\section{State}
A very important concept in hardware designs is \emph{state}. In a
stateless (or, \emph{combinational}) design, every output is directly and solely dependent on the
inputs. In a stateful design, the outputs can depend on the history of
inputs, or the \emph{state}. State is usually stored in \emph{registers},
which retain their value during a clock cycle, and are typically updated at
the start of every clock cycle. Since the updating of the state is tightly
coupled (synchronized) to the clock signal, these state updates are often
called \emph{synchronous} behavior.
\todo{Sidenote? Registers can contain any (complex) type}
To make Cλash useful to describe more than simple combinational
designs, it needs to be able to describe state in some way.
\subsection{Approaches to state}
In Haskell, functions are always pure (except when using unsafe
functions with the \hs{IO} monad, which is not supported by Cλash). This
means that the output of a function solely depends on its inputs. If you
evaluate a given function with given inputs, it will always provide the
same output.
\placeintermezzo{}{
\defref{purity}
\startframedtext[width=8cm,background=box,frame=no]
\startalignment[center]
{\tfa Purity}
\stopalignment
\blank[medium]
A function is said to be pure if it satisfies two conditions:
\startitemize[KR]
\item When a pure function is called with the same arguments twice, it should
return the same value in both cases.
\item When a pure function is called, it should have not
observable side-effects.
\stopitemize
Purity is an important property in functional languages, since
it enables all kinds of mathematical reasoning and
optimizations with pure functions, that are not guaranteed to
be correct for impure functions.
An example of a pure function is the square root function
\hs{sqrt}. An example of an impure function is the \hs{today}
function that returns the current date (which of course cannot
exist like this in Haskell).
\stopframedtext
}
This is a perfect match for a combinational circuit, where the output
also solely depends on the inputs. However, when state is involved, this
no longer holds. Of course this purity constraint cannot just be
removed from Haskell. But even when designing a completely new (hardware
description) language, it does not seem to be a good idea to
remove this purity. This would that all kinds of interesting properties of
the functional language get lost, and all kinds of transformations
and optimizations are no longer be meaning preserving.
So our functions must remain pure, meaning the current state has
to be present in the function's arguments in some way. There seem
to be two obvious ways to do this: adding the current state as an
argument, or including the full history of each argument.
\subsubsection{Stream arguments and results}
Including the entire history of each input (\eg, the value of that
input for each previous clock cycle) is an obvious way to make outputs
depend on all previous input. This is easily done by making every
input a list instead of a single value, containing all previous values
as well as the current value.
An obvious downside of this solution is that on each cycle, all the
previous cycles must be resimulated to obtain the current state. To do
this, it might be needed to have a recursive helper function as well,
which might be hard to be properly analyzed by the compiler.
A slight variation on this approach is one taken by some of the other
functional \small{HDL}s in the field: \todo{References to Lava,
ForSyDe, ...} Make functions operate on complete streams. This means
that a function is no longer called on every cycle, but just once. It
takes stream as inputs instead of values, where each stream contains
all the values for every clock cycle since system start. This is easily
modeled using an (infinite) list, with one element for each clock
cycle. Since the function is only evaluated once, its output must also
be a stream. Note that, since we are working with infinite lists and
still want to be able to simulate the system cycle-by-cycle, this
relies heavily on the lazy semantics of Haskell.
Since our inputs and outputs are streams, all other (intermediate)
values must be streams. All of our primitive operators (\eg, addition,
subtraction, bit-wise operations, etc.) must operate on streams as
well (note that changing a single-element operation to a stream
operation can done with \hs{map}, \hs{zipwith}, etc.).
This also means that primitive operations from an existing
language such as Haskell cannot be used directly (including some
syntax constructs, like \hs{case} expressions and \hs{if}
expressions). This makes this approach well suited for use in
\small{EDSL}s, since those already impose these same
limitations. \refdef{EDSL}
Note that the concept of \emph{state} is no more than having some way
to communicate a value from one cycle to the next. By introducing a
\hs{delay} function, we can do exactly that: delay (each value in) a
stream so that we can "look into" the past. This \hs{delay} function
simply outputs a stream where each value is the same as the input
value, but shifted one cycle. This causes a \quote{gap} at the
beginning of the stream: what is the value of the delay output in the
first cycle? For this, the \hs{delay} function has a second input, of
which only a single value is used.
\in{Example}[ex:DelayAcc] shows a simple accumulator expressed in this
style.
\startbuffer[DelayAcc]
acc :: Stream Word -> Stream Word
acc in = out
where
out = (delay out 0) + in
\stopbuffer
\startuseMPgraphic{DelayAcc}
save in, out, add, reg;
% I/O ports
newCircle.in(btex $in$ etex) "framed(false)";
newCircle.out(btex $out$ etex) "framed(false)";
% Components
newReg.reg("") "dx(4mm)", "dy(6mm)", "reflect(true)";
newCircle.add(btex + etex);
in.c = origin;
add.c = in.c + (2cm, 0cm);
out.c = add.c + (2cm, 0cm);
reg.c = add.c + (0cm, 2cm);
% Draw objects and lines
drawObj(in, out, add, reg);
nccurve(add)(reg) "angleA(0)", "angleB(180)", "posB(d)";
nccurve(reg)(add) "angleA(180)", "angleB(-45)", "posA(out)";
ncline(in)(add);
ncline(add)(out);
\stopuseMPgraphic
\placeexample[][ex:DelayAcc]{Simple accumulator architecture.}
\startcombination[2*1]
{\typebufferhs{DelayAcc}}{Haskell description using streams.}
{\boxedgraphic{DelayAcc}}{The architecture described by the Haskell description.}
\stopcombination
This notation can be confusing (especially due to the loop in the
definition of out), but is essentially easy to interpret. There is a
single call to delay, resulting in a circuit with a single register,
whose input is connected to \hs{out} (which is the output of the
adder), and its output is the expression \hs{delay out 0} (which is
connected to one of the adder inputs).
\subsubsection{Explicit state arguments and results}
A more explicit way to model state, is to simply add an extra argument
containing the current state value. This allows an output to depend on
both the inputs as well as the current state while keeping the
function pure (letting the result depend only on the arguments), since
the current state is now an argument.
In Haskell, this would look like
\in{example}[ex:ExplicitAcc]\footnote[notfinalsyntax]{This
example is not in the final Cλash syntax}. \todo{Referencing
notfinalsyntax from Introduction.tex doesn't work}
\startbuffer[ExplicitAcc]
-- input -> current state -> (new state, output)
acc :: Word -> Word -> (Word, Word)
acc in s = (s', out)
where
out = s + in
s' = out
\stopbuffer
\placeexample[][ex:ExplicitAcc]{Simple accumulator architecture.}
\startcombination[2*1]
{\typebufferhs{ExplicitAcc}}{Haskell description using explicit state arguments.}
% Picture is identical to the one we had just now.
{\boxedgraphic{DelayAcc}}{The architecture described by the Haskell description.}
\stopcombination
This approach makes a function's state very explicit, which state
variables are used by a function can be completely determined from its
type signature (as opposed to the stream approach, where a function
looks the same from the outside, regardless of what state variables it
uses or whether it is stateful at all).
This approach to state has been one of the initial drives behind
this research. Unlike a stream based approach it is well suited
to completely use existing code and language features (like
\hs{if} and \hs{case} expressions) because it operates on normal
values. Because of these reasons, this is the approach chosen
for Cλash. It will be examined more closely below.
\subsection{Explicit state specification}
The concept of explicit state has been introduced with some
examples above, but what are the implications of this approach?
\subsubsection{Substates}
Since a function's state is reflected directly in its type signature,
if a function calls other stateful functions (\eg, has sub-circuits), it
has to somehow know the current state for these called functions. The
only way to do this, is to put these \emph{substates} inside the
caller's state. This means that a function's state is the sum of the
states of all functions it calls, and its own state. This sum
can be obtained using something simple like a tuple, or possibly
custom algebraic types for clarity.
This also means that the type of a function (at least the "state"
part) is dependent on its own implementation and of the functions it
calls.
This is the major downside of this approach: the separation between
interface and implementation is limited. However, since Cλash is not
very suitable for separate compilation this is not a big problem
in practice.
Additionally, when using a type synonym for the state type
of each function, we can still provide explicit type signatures
while keeping the state specification for a function near its
definition only.
\todo{Example}
\subsubsection{Which arguments and results are stateful?}
\todo{This section should get some examples}
We need some way to know which arguments should become input ports and
which argument(s?) should become the current state (\eg, be bound to
the register outputs). This does not hold just for the top
level function, but also for any sub-function. Or could we perhaps
deduce the statefulness of sub-functions by analyzing the flow of data
in the calling functions?
To explore this matter, the following observation is interesting: we
get completely correct behavior when we put all state registers in
the top level entity (or even outside of it). All of the state
arguments and results on sub-functions are treated as normal input and
output ports. Effectively, a stateful function results in a stateless
hardware component that has one of its input ports connected to the
output of a register and one of its output ports connected to the
input of the same register.
\todo{Example}
Of course, even though the hardware described like this has the
correct behavior, unless the layout tool does smart optimizations,
there will be a lot of extra wire in the design (since registers will
not be close to the component that uses them). Also, when working with
the generated \small{VHDL} code, there will be a lot of extra ports
just to pass on state values, which can get quite confusing.
To fix this, we can simply \quote{push} the registers down into the
sub-circuits. When we see a register that is connected directly to a
sub-circuit, we remove the corresponding input and output port and put
the register inside the sub-circuit instead. This is slightly less
trivial when looking at the Haskell code instead of the resulting
circuit, but the idea is still the same.
\todo{Example}
However, when applying this technique, we might push registers down
too far. When you intend to store a result of a stateless sub-function
in the caller's state and pass the current value of that state
variable to that same function, the register might get pushed down too
far. It is impossible to distinguish this case from similar code where
the called function is in fact stateful. From this we can conclude
that we have to either:
\todo{Example of wrong downpushing}
\startitemize
\item accept that the generated hardware might not be exactly what we
intended, in some specific cases. In most cases, the hardware will be
what we intended.
\item explicitly annotate state arguments and results in the input
description.
\stopitemize
The first option causes (non-obvious) exceptions in the language
interpretation. Also, automatically determining where registers should
end up is easier to implement correctly with explicit annotations, so
for these reasons we will look at how this annotations could work.
\todo{Sidenote: one or more state arguments?}
\subsection[sec:description:stateann]{Explicit state annotation}
To make our stateful descriptions unambiguous and easier to translate,
we need some way for the developer to describe which arguments and
results are intended to become stateful.
Roughly, we have two ways to achieve this:
\startitemize[KR]
\item Use some kind of annotation method or syntactic construction in
the language to indicate exactly which argument and (part of the)
result is stateful. This means that the annotation lives
\quote{outside} of the function, it is completely invisible when
looking at the function body.
\item Use some kind of annotation on the type level, \ie\ give stateful
arguments and stateful (parts of) results a different type. This has the
potential to make this annotation visible inside the function as well,
such that when looking at a value inside the function body you can
tell if it is stateful by looking at its type. This could possibly make
the translation process a lot easier, since less analysis of the
program flow might be required.
\stopitemize
From these approaches, the type level \quote{annotations} have been
implemented in Cλash. \in{Section}[sec:prototype:statetype] expands on
the possible ways this could have been implemented.
\todo{Note about conditions on state variables and checking them}
\section[sec:recursion]{Recursion}
An important concept in functional languages is recursion. In its most basic
form, recursion is a definition that is described in terms of itself. A
recursive function is thus a function that uses itself in its body. This
usually requires multiple evaluations of this function, with changing
arguments, until eventually an evaluation of the function no longer requires
itself.
Given the notion that each function application will translate to a
component instantiation, we are presented with a problem. A recursive
function would translate to a component that contains itself. Or, more
precisely, that contains an instance of itself. This instance would again
contain an instance of itself, and again, into infinity. This is obviously a
problem for generating hardware.
This is expected for functions that describe infinite recursion. In that
case, we cannot generate hardware that shows correct behavior in a single
cycle (at best, we could generate hardware that needs an infinite number of
cycles to complete).
\placeintermezzo{}{
\startframedtext[width=8cm,background=box,frame=no]
\startalignment[center]
{\tfa \hs{null}, \hs{head} and \hs{tail}}
\stopalignment
\blank[medium]
The functions \hs{null}, \hs{head} and \hs{tail} are common list
functions in Haskell. The \hs{null} function simply checks if a list is
empty. The \hs{head} function returns the first element of a list. The
\hs{tail} function returns containing everything \emph{except} the first
element of a list.
In Cλash, there are vector versions of these functions, which do exactly
the same.
\stopframedtext
}
However, most recursive definitions will describe finite
recursion. This is because the recursive call is done conditionally. There
is usually a \hs{case} expression where at least one alternative does not contain
the recursive call, which we call the "base case". If, for each call to the
recursive function, we would be able to detect at compile time which
alternative applies, we would be able to remove the \hs{case} expression and
leave only the base case when it applies. This will ensure that expanding
the recursive functions will terminate after a bounded number of expansions.
This does imply the extra requirement that the base case is detectable at
compile time. In particular, this means that the decision between the base
case and the recursive case must not depend on run-time data.
\subsection{List recursion}
The most common deciding factor in recursion is the length of a list that is
passed in as an argument. Since we represent lists as vectors that encode
the length in the vector type, it seems easy to determine the base case. We
can simply look at the argument type for this. However, it turns out that
this is rather non-trivial to write down in Haskell already, not even
looking at translation. As an example, we would like to write down something
like this:
\starthaskell
sum :: Vector n Word -> Word
sum xs = case null xs of
True -> 0
False -> head xs + sum (tail xs)
\stophaskell
However, the Haskell type-checker will now use the following reasoning.
For simplicity, the element type of a vector is left out, all vectors
are assumed to have the same element type. Below, we write conditions
on type variables before the \hs{=>} operator. This is not completely
valid Haskell syntax, but serves to illustrate the type-checker
reasoning. Also note that a vector can never have a negative length,
so \hs{Vector n} implicitly means \hs{(n >= 0) => Vector n}.
\todo{This type-checker disregards the type signature}
\startitemize
\item tail has the type \hs{(n > 0) => Vector n -> Vector (n - 1)}
\item This means that xs must have the type \hs{(n > 0) => Vector n}
\item This means that sum must have the type \hs{(n > 0) => Vector n -> a}
(The type \hs{a} is can be anything at this stage, we will not try to finds
its actual type in this example).
\item sum is called with the result of tail as an argument, which has the
type \hs{Vector n} (since \hs{(n > 0) => Vector (n - 1)} is the same as \hs{(n >= 0)
=> Vector n}, which is the same as just \hs{Vector n}).
\item This means that sum must have the type \hs{Vector n -> a}
\item This is a contradiction between the type deduced from the body of sum
(the input vector must be non-empty) and the use of sum (the input vector
could have any length).
\stopitemize
As you can see, using a simple \hs{case} expression at value level causes
the type checker to always type-check both alternatives, which cannot be
done. The type-checker is unable to distinguish the two case
alternatives (this is partly possible using \small{GADT}s, but that
approach faced other problems \cite[baaij09]).
This is a fundamental problem, that would seem perfectly suited for a
type class. Considering that we need to switch between to
implementations of the sum function, based on the type of the
argument, this sounds like the perfect problem to solve with a type
class. However, this approach has its own problems (not the least of
them that you need to define a new type class for every recursive
function you want to define).
\subsection{General recursion}
Of course there are other forms of recursion, that do not depend on the
length (and thus type) of a list. For example, simple recursion using a
counter could be expressed, but only translated to hardware for a fixed
number of iterations. Also, this would require extensive support for compile
time simplification (constant propagation) and compile time evaluation
(evaluation of constant comparisons), to ensure non-termination.
Supporting general recursion will probably require strict conditions
on the input descriptions. Even then, it will be hard (if not
impossible) to really guarantee termination, since the user (or \GHC\
desugarer) might use some obscure notation that results in a corner
case of the simplifier that is not caught and thus non-termination.
Evaluating all possible (and non-possible) ways to add recursion to
our descriptions, it seems better to limit the scope of this research
to exclude recursion. This allows for focusing on other interesting
areas instead. By including (built-in) support for a number of
higher-order functions like \hs{map} and \hs{fold}, we can still
express most of the things we would use (list) recursion for.
% vim: set sw=2 sts=2 expandtab: